Advanced pathophysiology

Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of adult morbidity and mortality, accounting for 31% of deaths worldwide. The most common vascular system disorder is hypertension, defined by the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association (AHA) as blood pressure >130/80 mm Hg.

How do antihypertensive medications interact with determinants of cardiac output and peripheral resistance to reduce blood pressure?

What are the most common complications of untreated or undertreated hypertension?

The lungs interface with the environment, bringing in atmospheric air during inspiration, and expelling mixed airway and alveolar air during expiration. Gas exchange occurs in the alveoli and depends on lung mechanics as well as blood flow in taking up oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide. The lungs receive all of the blood flow of the right heart, a low-pressure system that perfuses the millions of alveolar capillaries for gas exchange.

How does smoking-induced damage to lung tissue lead to emphysema?

What is the rationale for using β-agonist drugs in diseases of increased airway resistance?

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