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Annotated Bibliography

Barberopoulou, A., Uslu, B., & Dengler, L. (2012). Lessons for California from the November 2006 Tsunami in Crescent City, California. Solutions to Coastal Disasters 2008: Tsunamis.




The case study of Crescent City highlights the vulnerability and weakness of Crescent City’s tsunami preparedness. In 2006, an 8.3 magnitude earthquake occurred near the coast of Japan. Crescent City was issued a tsunami advisory or warning. When the tsunami hit the city, poor harbor construction made the damage much worse. In total, Crescent City suffered nine million dollars in damage. In conclusion, the authors recommended that there was a need to better education and awareness for the residents of Crescent City, CA.

Lindell, M. K., Jung, M. C., Prater, C. S., & House, D. H. (2023). US Pacific coast communities’ past preparedness and preparedness intentions for Cascadia subduction zone tsunamis. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 84, 103466-.


Researchers conducted surveys with over nine hundred participants from three different cities along the American west coast. The response rate was around twenty one percent. Questions ranged from asking if residents were ware that they live in a tsunami risk zone to education of where the evacuation routes are located. Polls indicated that most coastal residents were aware that that they live in a tsunami risk zone. However, based on poll data, the study suggested that emergency managers need to promote tsunami awareness by distributing brochures and conduct public affairs campaigns with the local media.

Mat Said, A., Ahmadun, F.-R., Rodzi Mahmud, A., & Abas, F. (2011). Community preparedness for tsunami disaster: a case study. Disaster Prevention and Management, 20(3), 266–280.


The purpose of the study was to develop a tsunami emergency response plan based on surveys and interview with communities that were affected by the 2004 tsunami disaster in Malaysia. The study emphasized that tsunami awareness and education is the primary important factor for the community Additionally, identification of early warning and evocation communication channels were also important to residents. Lastly, residents identified the important of identification of evacuation routes. These results are useful in identifying key positive factors in tsunami preparedness plans.

Morgan, H. (2022). Conducting a Qualitative Document Analysis. Qualitative Report, 27(1), 64–77.


The article provides an overview of how to conduct proper qualitative document analysis. It also serves as a foundation for literature and theory. First, the author notes the lack of document analysis in research. Document analysis has many advantages including its cost effectives, safety, and stability of data. On the other hand, documents may have bias in them as well as limited data. When selecting documents for research, four factors must be considered – authenticity, credibility, representativeness, and meaning. Furthermore, triangulation of data is also key to ensure integrity and accuracy of document research.

National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program, Designing for Tsunamis: Seven Principles for Planning and Designing for Tsunami Hazards 1–71 (2001). Seattle, WA; National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program.

A team from the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program published a report that outlines the seven principles for planning and designing for Tsunami Hazards. The seven principles serve as the grading framework for the case study paper. Principle one is making the community aware of the tsunami hazard. Principle two is use of land planning to avoid further development in tsunami run-up areas. Principle three is to locate and change new developments that are in tsunami run up areas. Principle four is to design new buildings that are tsunami resistant. Principle five is to further protect existing development.
Principle six is taking special precautions in locating and designing infrastructure. Finally, principle seven is to plan for evacuation.

National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Ocean Studies Board, & Committee on the Review of the Tsunami Warning and Forecast System and Overview of the Nation’s Tsunami Preparedness. (2011). Tsunami Warning and Preparedness: An Assessment of the U.S. Tsunami Program and the Nation’s Preparedness Efforts. National Academies Press.


This textbook provides a general overview of proper tsunami warning and preparedness practices. Content includes developing effective early warning messages, communication with the local community, and practicing evacuation procedures. One statement of importance was that the authors state that being a Tsunami Ready community does not necessarily indicate that a community is ready for a tsunami. The challenge for emergency managers is to sustain public awareness and maintain the knowledge of evacuation procedures.

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