Motor Development & Physical Education Chapter 10
Motor Development & Physical Education Chapter 10
Intrinsic Feedback Sensory information that occurs normally when performers produce movements. It can come from sources outside the body (exteroception) or inside the body (proprioception).
Exteroception Sensory information that come primarily from sources outside a person's body, primarily vision, audition, and smell.
Proprioception Sensory information that comes primarily from sources in the muscles and joints and from bodily movements.
Extrinsic Feedback Sensory information provided by an outside source in addition to that which occurs when performers produce their movements (i.e. intrinsic feedback). Sometimes referred to as augmented feedback.
Augmented Feedback Another name for extrinsic feedback
Knowledge of Results Augmented information usually provided in verbal form after the action is completed. Indicates something about the degree to which the performer achieved the desired movement outcome or environmental goal.
Knowledge of Performance Augmented feedback that provides information about the quality of the movement (ex: rhythmic, smooth, mechanically efficient, beautiful, etc.).
Kinematic Feedback Feedback about the displacement, velocity, acceleration, or other aspects of the movement itself or of the object being moved. A subcategory of knowledge of performance.
Operant Learning The process of acquiring the capability to behave in ways that produce desirable outcomes.
Reinforcement An event following a response that increases the likelihood that the performer will repeat the response under similar circumstances
Negative Reinforcement An event following a response that removes an aversive condition and increases the likelihood that the performer will repeat the response again under similar circumstances.
Punishment An event following a response that decreases the likelihood that the response will be produced again under similar circumstances.
Positive Reinforcement An event following a response that increases the likelihood that the performer will repeat the response again under similar circumstances. Similar to a reward.
Intermittent Reinforcement A feedback schedule in which reinforcement is provided only occasionally
Information Feedback Feedback that provides performers with error-correction information. This feedback can be either descriptive or prescriptive.
Program Feedback Feedback that provides error information about the fundamental pattern of a movement (i.e. the generalized motor program)
Parameter Feedback Feedback that provides error information about the changeable surface features (ex: amplitude, speed, force) of movements
Prescriptive Feedback Feedback that describes the errors made during the performance of a skill and some things the learner might do to correct the errors.
Attentional Cueing Prescriptive feedback that directs learners' attention to the most pertinent information for correcting a particular performance error
Summary Feedback Feedback provided after a series of performance attempts that informs learners about each of the attempts in the series.
Average Feedback Feedback provided after a series of practice attempts that informs learners about their average performance
Bandwidth Feedback Feedback provided only when errors exceed a certain tolerance level
Absolute Feedback Frequency The total number of times feedback is given for a series of performance attempts
Relative Feedback Frequency The percentage of performance attempts for which feedback is given. Equal to absolute feedback frequency divided by the number of performance attempts and multiplied by 100.
Faded Feedback A schedule for providing extrinsic feedback in which relative frequency of feedback presentation is high during early practice and diminishes during later practice
Instantaneous Feedback Feedback provided immediately following movement completion
Delayed Feedback Feedback provided several seconds or more following movement completion
What are the four ways in which extrinsic feedback can influence learning?
Motivational, Reinforcement, Informational, Dependency-producing Properties
Thorndike's Law of Effect (1927) Law that says that actions followed by pleasant of rewarding consequences tend to be repeated, and actions followed by unpleasant or punishing consequences tend to not be repeated
What are the two problems with punishment? No guarantee that the appropriate response will replace the wrong one and the learner may withdraw
Precision of Feedback Informational property of extrinsic feedback that tells how closely the feedback matches the actual error. Can give the direction or magnitude of the error.
How should precision of feedback be given over the course of learning? Increase over the course of learning.
Dependency-Producing Properties This is what happens when learners become dependent on extrinsic feedback.
Mental Practice When performers think through/about the cognitive or procedural aspects of a motor skill in the absence of movement
When performers imagine themselves performing a motor skill (from an internal or external perspective)