Crocker & Algina, Item 5:

This is a description of a validation study. Identify any potential problems that could affect the outcome of the study.

b. An industrial psychologist is developing a test to screen applicants for clerical jobs in a given corporation and asks job supervisors to rate present workers on a scale with categories: “Above Average,” “Average,” and “Below Average.” The psychologist then tests workers in the “Above Average” category and those in the “Below Average” category and compares their group means. The psychologist finds a significant difference in favor of the “Above Average” group.


Crocker & Algina, Ch. 10, Item 5:

This is a description of a validation study. Identify any potential problems that could affect the outcome of the study.

c. A developmental psychologist devises a test for social maturity in children. The test is administered to 50 students at a preschool, and parents and teachers are notified of their scores. Teachers are requested to observe the children carefully for the next three months and to keep anecdotal records on each child’s behavior that would be useful in assessing level of social maturity. On the basis of these records, the psychologist ranks the children on the level of social maturity and rank orders them on the basis of their test scores. These ranks are correlated by the Spearman rank order correlation coefficient, and it is quite high.


Crocker & Algina, Ch. 10, Item 6:

For the following situations, consider the type of inference that the test user desires to make from the test score and indicate the type of validation study that would be most appropriate (content, criterion-related predictive, criterion-related concurrent, or construct):

a. A social psychologist develops an inventory intended to identify workers in health-related occupations who manifest symptoms of “job burnout.” A variety of behaviors are used to define “burnout,” including high absenteeism, failure to comply with institutional policies, and strained relationships with colleagues and supervisors.

c. An observational rating scale is being developed to rate the classroom performance of first-year teachers, and experienced classroom teachers are asked to examine the items on the rating scale to see if they are relevant to effective performance.


Crocker & Algina, Ch. 10, Item 10:

A graduate student in clinical psychology finds in a test manual for a personality inventory that the reliability estimate of the test scores is 0.76, but the validity coefficient between this inventory and another inventory, which purportedly measures a similar trait, is 0.78. He suspects an error because he has often heard that “a test cannot be more valid than it is reliable.” Is this necessarily true? Why or why not?


How would you describe the relationship between reliability and validity?

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